Throughout the world, there has been a significant increase in the proportion of people who are classified as elderly. The reasons for this are the increased modernization of many nations due to the impact of globalization on transportation, communications, food production, and medical services. As a result of these improvements in the average quality-of-life, people are living longer. The same growth of elderly persons has been seen within prison systems around the world, as well. This article examines the impact of the graying of society in the People’s Republic of China and the United States, in general, and the correctional systems of both countries, in particular. A comparison of each country’s approach to providing programming for elderly offenders within each nation is provided. Legal requirements and constraints relevant to correctional administrators and the rights of elderly offenders are discussed. Medical and mental health characteristics of the elderly offender population in both countries are presented. Both similarities and differences in correctional systems as well as offender population characteristics are explained, providing a unique opportunity to gain insight from the two largest correctional systems in the world.